Caesar's assault position is inside a double ring of fortifications. At daybreak he has the muleteers disguise themselves as cavalry and ride around the hills. When they reached Alesia, the Romans surrounded the hilltop city. They charge the town's wall. Nor do the Treveri attend, for they are too far distant, and are at war with the Germans. Vercingetorix is notified of Caesar's plans and destroys all bridges along the river Allier, which forms the line of Caesar's march. The latter decides to take advantage of a marsh flowing into the Seine to keep the Romans from crossing the river. Caesar places troops among the Ruteni in the province and among others who border on enemy territory and orders many of the new troops he brings with him from Rome to gather in the territory of the Helvii, bordering on the Arverni. Meanwhile, Vercingetorix' ambassador, Lucterius, continued to gain allies. He is between two enemy forces and knows that his role can shift from attacker to defender if things do not go well, so he must be especially crafty and thus, to make sure an enemy attack cannot reach his lines too quickly, he takes the added precaution of planting traps outside his trench. He commands the Gauls to destroy all their property so that the Romans will find no forage. Caesar ordered them to surrender their weapons and to bring out their cattle and 600 hostages. And, since the Gauls have many horsemen, they can easily outnumber and surround Roman foraging parties. When Caesar finally reached Gergovia, he surprised the inhabitants. When 8,000 cavalry and 250,000 infantry are collected, the army is organized and officers appointed. Pompey and M. Crassus were consuls), those Germans [called] the Usipetes, and likewise the Tenchtheri, with a great number of men, crossed the Rhine, not far from the place at which that river discharges itself into the sea. Some rode off to the other Aeduan towns to convince them to resist and avenge themselves on the Romans, as well. One of those in on the discussion was Litavicus, who was put in charge of the infantry being sent to Caesar. Especially during the winter when there was little to forage, having food could decide the outcome of a battle. Vercingetorix then brings forward Roman prisoners whom he has tortured and who, he believes, will support his theories. Caesar's first maneuver is to send his cavalry to meet that of the enemy. His decision seems traitorous, for after Roman defeat, an even brighter future is promised for the Aeduan king. Vercingetorix saw what had happened and gave up, surrendering himself and his weapons. This period of revolt follows the earlier Gallic battles at Bibracte, Vosges, and Sabis. With great effort, Caesar's troops arrive in camp before sunrise. The Romans pitched camp and when the townspeople tried to escape at night via a bridge across the Loire River, Caesar's troops took possession of the town, pillaged and burned it, and then headed across the Loire bridge into the Biturgies' territory. Discover surprising insights and little-known facts about politics, literature, science, and the marvels of the natural world. Late one night the Romans see smoke coming from the ramp and realize that the enemy has set it afire from a tunnel. The enemy general, puffed with pride, marches down the other side. Instead a solemn oath is taken. His uncle, Gobannitio, and the other chiefs try to stop him, but unable to dissuade him, they finally drive him from town. One in the company of Caesar learned of Litavicus' actions and told Caesar. Vercingetorix, however, gathers more recruits, and in turn drives the officials out of the state. And so, the Romans entered the town and massacred the inhabitants. Marcus Antonius and Gaius Trebonius, in charge of the defense of the sections under attack, take soldiers from areas not being attacked and have them move behind the defenders to help wherever possible. The two armies pitched their camps on opposite banks and Caesar rebuilds a bridge. Vercassivellaunus, commander of the forces, hides the men behind the hill just before dawn and at noon he moves against the Roman camp. Before responding to this new threat, Vercingetorix called a war council, telling the other leaders that the Romans must be kept from getting provisions. They obviously think that Caesar will be unable to leave Rome to return to the army and that the army will be ineffectual without him. Caesar's troops withdraw safely from the city, and plot moves against the mightier foe rapidly approaching. While Caesar's men went into town to gather up the arms and horses, Vercingetorix' army appeared on the horizon. He has Eporedorix and Viridomarus move up with the horsemen so that their people will see that they have not been murdered. Caesar's bait is effective. Book VI of Caesar's description of his campaigns in Gaul deals with events of 53 BC, teh year after his major expedition to Britain. But, because they have committed great crimes, they are afraid that they will be severely dealt with. He fights until all his men, including himself, are annihilated. By peaceful means or by attacking, he added troops from the Gallic tribes of the Senones (the tribe connected with the band of Gauls responsible for the sack of Rome in 390 B.C. These men, however, have been instructed by Caesar to say that the Roman army is weakened by hunger and that Caesar has decided to withdraw if he is not successful in three days. The hillside, at the end the enemy attacks, is open because Caesar would have had to enclose the entire hill to complete his entrenchments. 7:1 Gaul being tranquil, Caesar, as he had determined, sets out for Italy to hold the provincial assizes. Caesar then notices that the hill opposite his forces is undefended and learns from enemy deserters that Vercingetorix has pulled the defenders off that area in order to fortify another hill, the loss of which would cut off his troops from escape and forage. Book VII. Note, too, that later when Caesar chastises them, he makes sure that he also spends much time encouraging them; he knows that a group of soldiers who are beaten, and then told by their leader that it was because of their own foolishness, is not a group that will be an effective fighting force. Although he clearly had much first-hand contact with Celts, some scholars believe that he also drew upon Posidonius. Next stop was the Aedui, one of Rome's main allies in Gaul, and where two of Caesar's legions were wintering. There is risk in the plan, but all chiefs present agree that it is better to die in battle than fail to try to regain their previous power and liberty. Caesar suspects that Eporedorix and Viridomarus will betray him, but he does not want to seem distrustful because he cannot be sure. Camulogenus, the leader of the enemy force, commands the group. He quickly gets his army together and, though matters are still dangerous, he is able to move with striking effect. and any corresponding bookmarks? Later, he marches downstream with his other three legions and goes to meet the boats. Title. They were able to ride through the places where the Romans hadn't yet completed their fortification. Between such arguments and bribes made to the Aedui by the allies of Vercingetorix, the Aedui were convinced. He also figured he would take the opportunity to gain provisions for his troops. Many were killed but they still did not stop. This is what Vercingetorix would soon develop as one of his main policies. The brothers agree to join the plot and they set to work to plan Caesar's defeat. On the exam, you will be tested on their ability to translate literally, to analyze, and to interpret the text. His soldiers kill 3,000 of the enemy's rear guard; the next day Caesar sets up camp near Alesia, knowing that the enemy has been terrified by the loss of such great numbers of men. In desperation, he assigns each of the fifty boats to a Roman knight and orders that at night they move in silence four miles downstream and wait for him there. Knowing that he must fight a major battle before the enemy can assemble larger forces, Caesar moves quickly. Fighting continues throughout the night. When he gives the signal to move, he also sends the Aedui under his command up another side of the hill. The fortifications were not just a means to contain those within. Commius and the others reach Alesia and set up their position a mile from the Roman camp. Vercingetorix sent out mounted troops to go to their tribes to round up all those old enough to bear arms. Meanwhile, Vercingetorix had thousands of cavalry from the Aedui and Segusiani. Caesar sent ahead messages to the Boii to encourage them to resist. Caesar then moves to the town of Cenabum, whose inhabitants have heard of the siege of Vellaunodunum and have prepared their garrison. The army lay down its arms and submitted themselves. Gallic Wars, (58–50 bce ), campaigns in which the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar conquered Gaul. The enemy is surprised at Caesar's determined efforts and are totally confused. And, next day, as a heavy rain drenches his legions, he observes that the guard on the wall is less than usual. The Aedui which Caesar had sent out earlier appears on the Romans' right flank and the Romans mistake them for enemy troops. Satisfied with his strategy, Caesar orders that the retreat be sounded. He also tells them to send him all their horsemen plus 10,000 infantry troops, which he needs to guard his grain supply. The Romans, however, are prepared and take their assigned posts, fire their missiles, and hold off the Gauls. Vercingetorix boasts that he and he alone is responsible for this; how, then, dare his men accuse him of treachery? One of Gaul's most colorful historical figures is Vercingetorix, who acted as war chief for all the Gallic tribes who were trying to throw off the Roman yoke during the Gallic Wars. The rumors do just that. Both sides see that Caesar is coming to Labienus' aid and that he is wearing a flashing scarlet cape; the general has entered the thick of battle. Caesar is hesitant to leave the war, but knows that if the Aeduan dispute is not settled, the losing party will probably join Vercingetorix. The following is a summary of Book VII of De Bello Gallico, with some explanatory notes. In charge are Commius, Viridomarus, Eporedorix, and Vercassivellaunus. Then, when their cavalry has fled, the archers are surrounded and killed. Vercingetorix assembles many of his troops about ten miles from the Romans, then tells his commanders that the Romans are fleeing, but that they will return and says that they must attack them en route and shame them by taking their equipment. The two young men have killed the Roman troops and traders at Noviodunum, divided the money and horses, and sent the hostages to Bibracte; then the town was burned so that it would be of no use to the Romans. This seems to be the case with Vercingetorix, and it certainly will be the case later with the Aeduans. This text is an excerpt from the book VII of The Gallic War, a book which narrates the military events of the year 52 BCE and which ends with the Roman victory at Alesia against Vercingetorix.Concerning the redaction of The Gallic War and of the book VII in particular, it remains a debated issue. The Aedui started to help but then turned back perhaps because, as they said, they suspected the Biturgies of complicity with the Arverni. At the same time the Gallic cavalry attacks the Roman lines farther down the plain. It is here that we are able to see how delicate is the balance of political control in Gaul and how great is the responsibility of the governor responsible for peace. The Biturgies were dependents of the Aedui and the Aedui were allies of Rome ("Brothers and Kinsmen of the Roman People" 1.33). In it, Caesar has placed all the Gallic hostages, his grain, his money, most of his army's equipment, and many horses that have been purchased in Spain and Italy. There is, of course, no way of knowing whether they said this because it was true or because of treachery. He added the Nitiobriges and Gabali and then headed to Narbo, which was in the Roman province of Transalpine Gaul, so Caesar headed to Narbo, which made Lucterius retreat. At once he is called "King" by his supporters and soon manages alliance with other tribes, all of which agree that he is best suited to be their chief. The Aedui are distressed at being forced to follow Vercingetorix, but are bound to their allies; thus Eporedorix and Viridomarus unwillingly obey the chosen leader. He then asked the Aedui to send him all their cavalry plus 10,000 infantry. Motivations. Caesar's foraging parties are kept under surveillance and whenever any are widely scattered, Vercingetorix orders them attacked. This period of revolt follows the earlier Gallic battles at Bibracte, Vosges, and Sabis. That done, he sends Labienus with four legions against the Senones and the Parisii; the other six he takes to Gergovia in the country of the Arverni. Having advanced into the country of the Nitiobriges, and Gabali, he receives hostages from both nations, and, assembling a numerous force, marches to make a descent on the province in the direction of Narbo. Halfway there, messengers from Fabius report that the camp has been attacked by a full force of invaders and that many of the defenders have been wounded. But, in spite of the Gallic counter-measures, the Romans manage within 25 days to build a ramp 330 feet wide and 80 feet high. Caesar besieged the town for 27 days building towers and walls while the Gauls built countering devices. © 2020 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. And Caesar quite deliberately presents him in this way because if Vercingetorix is shown to be a superior leader; then Caesar's success against him is even more impressive. The time is right for his plan: he orders the men at work to slacken their speed. The Gauls hope to survive only because they have the cooperation of the local tribes. About 800 in Caesar's reckoning escaped to reach Vercingetorix. The plan is accepted and, for the common good, private property rights vanish — all towns and homes in the foraging area are to be burned. The Gauls decide against gathering together all men available, for that would strain the food supply and also create a force difficult to discipline. Vercingetorix and Caesar are the main figures in Book VII of De Bello Gallico, Caesar's narrative about his wars in Gaul, although the Roman allies, the Aedui, also play a large role. Convictolitavis is seemingly ungrateful for Caesar's decision. bookmarked pages associated with this title. Vercingetorix decided the time was right to attack the Roman forces whom he judged to be inadequate in number, as well as encumbered with their baggage. He is easily swayed and so is his partner Litaviccus; both of them are ready to believe any rumor. During the burning, there is debate concerning the burning of Avaricum — the finest city in all Gaul — and although Vercingetorix strongly believes that it too should be destroyed, he finally yields to the arguments defending the city's survival. The area seems vital so the Gauls send 60,000 of their bravest soldiers there in secret. Caesar then sends one legion in the same direction, stops it part way, and hides it in the woods. The men on both sides fight even more bravely than usual because they know they are being watched by both sides, and the fight lasts from noon to sunset before the Germans mass and charge so violently that the enemy must retreat. As a final measure, any town not secure enough to defend itself is to be burnt. In this way, they destroyed 20 of their own Biturgies towns. 7.01-05 Sight Reading With the Professor. All rights reserved. Caesar's decision is this: he orders all weapons surrendered and tells the Gauls to bring their chiefs out. [4.1] The following winter (this was the year in which Cn. They report that Litaviccus has gone with his cavalry to incite the Aedui and say that they must go and try to get ahead of him so that they can maintain the loyalty of the Aeduan people. Labienus then led his men to join Caesar. He orders the packs piled and the men to ready their weapons. He leaves Gains Fabius in charge of the two legions left to garrison the camp, and orders the arrest of Litaviccus' brothers, but they have fled. Verciugetorix' retreat troubles Caesar. The Gauls on the city side of the Roman lines empty the Roman turrets by firing missiles, then fill in the trenches and tear down the breastworks by pulling them over with large hooks, but all is not theirs yet Caesar sends young Brutus with troops, and Gaius Fabius with even more, then goes himself with still more until the enemy is beaten back. As quickly as possible the tribunes of the Seventh Legion bring their troops around to Camulogenus' rear, but even so he refuses to back up. By the end of Book VII Caesar has put down the Gallic revolt. The plan is harsh, but the alternative in defeat is harsher: Families will be made slaves and soldiers will be slaughtered. The Aeduan revolt spreads. It is little wonder that Caesar is accorded heroic stature, especially after one considers the deeds recorded in this book. He assaults the city of Noviodunum and has little trouble claiming another victory. This is the longest book in the Gallic Wars and it describes the great revolt of most of the Gallic tribes. Distressed that his cavalry has been destroyed, Vercingetorix begins to move the rest of his army toward Alesia, a town of the Mandubii. His men are enthusiastic and swear an oath that they will not return home until they pass twice through Caesar's column. As the towns are destroyed, there is much mourning, but the pain of loss is compensated for by the hope of recovering their losses by overcoming the Romans. This he did, and after his troops had surprised the Aeduans, they took the food and cattle they found in the fields and then marched off to the territory of the Senones. But Caesar, although he had not as yet discovered their measures, yet, both from what had occurred to his ships, and from the circumstance that they had neglected to give the promised hostages, suspected that the thing would come to pass which really did happen. Finally, ending the day's engagement, Vercingetorix, as the victor, called off the fight for the day when new Roman legions arrived. Book VII. He takes all of the enemy prisoner, including Vercingetorix. Many of Caesar's troops did not hear when he called for a retreat. Then, suddenly, the enemy is aware that the Roman cavalry has come up behind them, so they try to run, but the cavalry kills great numbers. Vercingetorix' followers are less trusting and accuse their leader of treachery; he moved their camps near the Romans, then went off with the cavalry and left the camp without a commander. Gallic walls, it is now explained, are made in overlapping units, filled with rubble on the inside and covered by large stones on the outside. Book 8 was written by Aulus Hirtius, after Caesar's death. The townspeople then fear they will have absolutely no way of escape if they wait any longer, so they throw away their weapons and run to the far side of the town. When Caesar heard about the alliance, he realized it was a threat, so he left Italy and set out for Transalpine Gaul, a Roman province since 121 B.C., but he didn't have his regular army, although he did have some German cavalry and troops he had in Cisalpine Gaul. The remaining Helvii then take refuge in their towns. Fabius expects another attack on the following day. Litaviccus has been received by the Aedui at Bibracte, has been joined by Convictolitavis, and has sent representatives to make a treaty with Vercingetorix. One end of the Roman camp, they discover, leads to a hill so great that the Romans were unable to include it within their entrenchment. Rumors of Caesar's difficulties spread and Labienus decides his problem is more than merely winning this battle. He finds the German horses, unfortunately, not good enough for his purposes, so takes the horses away from the Romans and gives them to the German horsemen. The allies were appeased and supplied Vercingetorix with replacement troops for those he had lost. While the battle rages, a messenger arrives and reports to the Aedui that their army is in Caesar's power. His men are waiting; when the men of the town sneak out, the Romans are able to flood inside. After these two defeats, the Gauls reconsider their plans. As soon as Caesar is informed, he has the town's gates burned and sends in the waiting legions. In the next book, which deals with the year 57, we visit the Belgians, who liv… Vercingetorix, son of the former Gallic chieftain, arouses his men to assemble and is soon joined by many other adventurers and soldiers. Gaius Julius Caesar The Gallic Wars Book 4. At the signal, the Roman troops quickly cross the wall and take three camps. Julius Caesar wrote commentaries on the wars he fought in Gaul between 58 and 52 B.C., in seven books one for each year. Seeing that mighty Caesar is victorious, they seize those whom they think roused them to battle and bring them to Caesar, pleading for his acceptance of their surrender. The Arverni send representatives and agree to do the same. The law is clear and there is no justification for Cotus' attempt to have the office. In Vercingetorix' case, the chiefs of the tribe are opposed to his plans, hut he manages to organize his own army, dispose of the chiefs, and revolt against Rome. The following night the Gauls attack the Roman camp and when the troops in town hear the shouting, Vercingetorix leads them out to join in the fighting. Vercingetorix suggested a scorched-earth policy. Because of this, allied towns that weren't potential enemies at one's back might still be destroyed to make sure the enemy army starved or retreated. They attack Cenabum, kill the Romans there and plunder the Roman property stored in the town. Their commanders attempt to restrain them, but the troops are excited at the prospect of an easy victory. The Gauls under Camulogenus were tricked by his maneuvers and then defeated in a battle where Camulogenus was slain. Still, their number is vast — almost 300,000 troops are requisitioned. The Aedui, as we see when Caesar visits them, are easily confused and led astray, and we are prepared for their irrational attacks on the Romans. He pauses for two days, then leaves his army and pretends to be out seeing to further inductions. Julius Caesar Biography. If he keeps his legions in one place, defections mount and soon all Gaul will revolt as it becomes apparent that Rome is powerless to stop the rebellions. The Aeduans who have not heard that Litaviccus was a traitor act on his first advice and, according to the initial plans, plunder and kill many Roman citizens in their midst and enslave many others. Removing #book# The wily leader and his dependents escape, however, before they can be dealt with. Then he allows his army a night rest of three hours before moving back to Gergovia. He pushes his troops until they see the column of Aedui, then sends the cavalry ahead to stop them and orders that there be no killing. Literature Network » Julius Caesar » The Gallic Wars » Book VII. Suddenly the Romans find themselves fighting on all fronts; they must spread out more than is militarily desirable. His men then tortured and killed the Romans under their protection. Vercingetorix first orders hostages from the other states and requires 15,000 horsemen to assemble. The Latin title, Commentaries on the Gallic War, is often retained in English translations of the book, and the title is also translated to About the Gallic War, Of the Gallic War, On the Gallic War, The Conquest of Gaul, and The Gallic War. Thus they want to ready their forces in secret and so do not exchange hostages, which would reveal that coalition was being accomplished. Caesar informs the Aeduan state that he might easily have put the column to death, but that he chose to show mercy. Arriving in Italy, Caesar learns that the senate has decreed that all young men of military age should be drafted, so he decides to enroll soldiers in Cisalpine Gaul. When Caesar heard of these developments he thought he should put down the revolt quickly before the armed force grew too large. Others worked on building the fortifications, which meant Caesar's troop strength was diminished. Vercingetorix has the escapees assigned to their separate tribal camps along his lines. These people go to the Roman lines and beg to be taken in as slaves, but Caesar refuses to admit them. c. iulius caesar (100 – 44 b.c.) Vercingetorix marched his troops there in order to defend his people. - Caesar, Crassus and Pompey and The First Triumvirate, M.A., Linguistics, University of Minnesota. They send for Vercingetorix to save them now that the war has gone against them, and he turns from his battle with the Bituriges and speeds toward the Arverni. Thus, after his lecture, he compliments them equally on their bravery and lets them fight a few minor battles to regain their confidence. Convictolitavis is bribed, but there is the implication that he is largely influenced by a desire for greater power, for even though he is in office because of Roman authority, he says he would prefer that Rome had to come to the Aedui for assistance rather than vice versa. Vercingetorix is forced then to send all his horsemen away before the Romans have blocked escape routes and he asks the men to go and recruit all new troops possible; he reminds them of the services he has rendered them and says that if they fail 80,000 troops will die. He merely points out, before letting them ride away, all that he has done for them and their people. They also build up the scaffolding on their walls to keep it on a level with the Roman turrets. One side faces the town, the other protects the Roman rear. This is one of the rare occasions in which one of Caesar's own camps has a deficiency in its construction. Labienus bravely encourages his soldiers, then joins in the combat himself. Commentaries on the Gallic War Gaius Julius CAESAR (100 - 44 BCE) , translated by Thomas Rice HOLMES (1855 - 1933) Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. It is a first hand account of the final titanic struggle between two nations, one fighting for … All the Gallic leaders then convene at Bibracte to discuss the dispute and the body votes that Vercingetorix continue as leader. Camulogenus therefore splits his army into three parts; a guard is left opposite the Roman camp, a small group goes upstream as far as the smaller boats; the rest go against Labienus. He fears their coming into the main camp and starting a mutiny. Now, however, Eporedorix reports Litaviccus' plans to Caesar and begs that he not allow the plots of these young traitors to destroy the friendship between Rome and the Aeduans. The Bituriges, for example, would have remained on Caesar's side had not the Adenans failed to help them. Book 7 of Caesar’s Gallic Wars is a narrative like few others in the history of the world. The rest of the enemy forces disperse to their respective states. A few Roman cohorts left the fortifications and circled round to the rear of the outer enemy whom they surprised and slaughtered when they tried to flee. Luckily, their camp is near one of the bridges that Vercingetorix has destroyed and when the legions have departed and Vercingetorix' troops have followed on the other side, Caesar orders the bridge rebuilt. AU $57.45 item 3 Caesar's Gallic War: Complete Edition, Including Seven Books. Then he goes forward to encourage his troops. The Gallic Wars are described by Julius Caesar in his book Commentarii de Bello Gallico, which is the main source for the conflict but is considered to be unreliable at best by modern historians. They cannot manage entry through their small gate openings and many are killed by the German swordsmen. Caesar obliges, then moves on toward Avaricurn, the largest and best fortified of the Bituriges' towns. Other groups are sent against other tribes. Here, he feels, the states of the Bituriges will come again under his control if he can capture Avaricum. The town is on a great height and is difficult to approach, so he knows he cannot take it by storm. ], Caesar, when departing from his winter quarters into Italy, as he had been accustomed to do yearly, commands the lieutenants whom he appointed over the legions to take care that during the winter as many ships as possible should be built, and the old repaired. So, just after midnight, Caesar sends his cavalry there with instructions to be extra noisy in their movements. He then moves to aid Labienus, who has pulled back four cohorts and sent the horsemen around the wall to attack the rear of the enemy units who harass the hill side of the Roman entrenchment. Caesar, however, arrives there in two days, before their preparations are complete, but he arrives too late in the day to begin battle, so he camps for the night and posts two legions under arms in case the people try to escape by crossing the Loire. A date is set for the beginning of their campaign and the meeting is adjourned. Halfway up the hill is a stone wall built by the Gauls and behind it their camps are grouped closely together. He had to figure out how to reach the main forces without putting them in danger. Their next move is to send 10,000 men into the town. Caesar, surveying the remains of the battle, finds that almost 700 Romans are missing. The Gauls are overjoyed for it seems that their cavalry is sure to win. Fires are finally put out and fighting stops. Caesar secures his baggage on a hill, then leaves two legions to guard it while he takes the rest of the army in pursuit. The natives of Transalpine Gaul, meanwhile, hear of his decision and spread rumors that the general is detained in Rome and cannot join his army. Next After Caesar's troops surrounded Vellaunodunum, the town sent out their ambassadors. Then he repairs the bridge the enemy had earlier cut down and marches to Lutetia. He cannot change his original plan for it would be difficult to get through the mountains, but he is anxious about Labienus and his legions. Caesar's Gallic War consists of seven parts ("books"), each devoted to one year of campaigning. Vercingetorix then set up camp 15 miles from Avaricum and whenever Caesar's men went foraging at a distance, some of Vercingetorix' men attacked them. The next day, the Gauls attacked from both sides. The natives of Transalpine Gaul, meanwhile, hear of his decision and spread rumors that the general is detained in Rome and cannot join his army. He tells his men to leave, that he cannot save himself, but perhaps he can save them. The two armies thus move in parallel columns down opposite sides of the river. When Eporedorix and Viridomarus arrive, they find ruins. Since the Roman government disapproved of Caesar’s undertakings, his literary aim in the Gallic War is to merely justify his actions of his annexation of Gaul (modern France) to Rome. Caesar dismissed two important Aeduans, Viridomarus and Eporedorix, who went to the Aeduan town of Noviodunum on the Loire, where they learned that further negotiations were being made between the Aeduans and the Arvernians. 7.06-10 Sight Reading With the Professor. We can be fairly sure that many of the Gallic leaders involved are interested in personal power rather than political freedom for their people. Lucius Fabius and his three men are killed and thrown from the wall. Vercingetorix was able to calm the other leaders despite all the recent disasters. This is, of course, seen from the town and the muleteers are mistaken for the real cavalry. There are a few more skirmishes during the next few days, but no major battles because Vercingetorix cannot be lured to level ground. commentariorum libri vii de bello gallico cum a. hirti supplemento Lucterius, meanwhile, unites the Ruteni with the Arverni, then brings the Nitiobriges and the Gabali into the alliance. These he sets under the command of Eporedorix' brother, and sends them to fight the Allobroges. Caesar reaches Gergovia in five days. They hope desperately that the Romans will not be able to stay in the area if there is a great scarcity of food or perhaps even better, that the Romans will go far afield and be easy to pick off. The Gauls become suspicious and bring all their force to the area to defend it. Caesar then finds sufficient supplies for his troops and decides first to march toward the Senones. Then, to insure more than verbal agreement from them, Vercingetorix orders that hostages, soldiers, and weapons be delivered to him; his command is most strict and non-compliers are mutilated or killed. The Gauls try to escape during the night and reach Vercingetorix' camp but are once again unsuccessful, for the men of the town are given away by the screams and moans of their wives, begging them not to leave. She has been featured by NPR and National Geographic for her ancient history expertise. All of Caesar's skills — being prepared, moving quickly, and taking advantage — are more important in this book than anywhere else; this widespread Gallic rebellion is his greatest challenge. There he receives intelligence of the death of Clodius; and, being informed of the decree of the senate, [to the effect] that all the youth of Italy should take the military oath, he determined to hold a levy throughout the entire province. Just before dawn, however, the enemy gets reports of the Roman movements and decides that the legions are probably crossing in three places. The troops see the two men and realize that Litaviccus has lied. There, like sheep herded into a fold, the enemy is trapped. In addition, there are two known indexing errors, both of which exist in the printed copy and the transcriber was unable to resolve their accuracy: Gallic Wars, Book 7: Skips chapter 89 ; Gallic Wars, Book 8: Skips chapter 46 The day for war nears and Vercingetorix camps some sixteen miles from Avaricum so that his scouts can keep him informed. Sizable units captured include Cotus and other generals, including Cavarillus and Eporedorix. Hearing that Caesar is cutting a bloody path toward him, Vercingetorix leaves the attack against the Boii and turns to meet the Romans. Labienus then returns to Agendincum, picks up the baggage, and proudly marches to meet Caesar. Caesar hears of the attacks and, because the difficulties in Rome are solved, he heads for Transalpine Gaul. The next day the allies came closer and many were injured on the Roman fortifications, so they withdrew. The Germans pursued the Gallic enemy to the river where Vercingetorix was stationed with his infantry. Caesar followed, killing those he could. In other books, the rebellions are generally restricted to a single area at a time, but here the revolt is general, including even the usually reliable Aedui. He stops to consider and camps in a thick wood. The Romans are indeed in trouble, but the Tenth Legion prevents the Gauls from pursuing the harried soldiers and, when they reach level ground, they turn and face the enemy. Adrian Goldsworthy says an estimated 700 Roman soldiers and 46 centurions were killed. When they were near Gergovia, Litavicus riled up his troops against the Romans. The Romans are tired by their long charge and, unfortunately, are also outnumbered. The Romans finally had success with a sudden attack, which frightened many of the Gauls into flight. Caesar was afraid that if he didn't arbitrate, one side would turn to Vercingetorix for support of its cause, so he stepped in. Chapter 7 In the mean time Lucterius the Cadurcan, having been sent into the country of the Ruteni, gains over that state to the Arverni. About Caesar: Gallic War VI. The Romans seized this opportunity and moved closer to the city. Since the people of Noviodunum were going back on their word, Caesar attacked. With arrangements made and Trebonius left in charge, Caesar set out for Genabum, a Carnute town that had been preparing to send troops to help Vellaunodum fight, Caesar. He reminds them that there will be reward once it is over. He falsely claimed the Romans had killed some of their favorite leaders. Caesar, meanwhile, sets up defensive units on both sides of his entrenchment and sends the cavalry out to fight. But his current task is made doubly difficult because he is pressed on one side by the brave Bellovaci and on the other by Camulogenus' army. Caesar, no longer able to do without the rest of his forces, left Brutus in command while he went to Vienna where his cavalry was stationed. Caesar's Gallic Wars Book One By: David Brown Caesar destroys the quarter of the Helvetian force by surprising them while they are crossing a river Ceasar's legions finally meet the Helvetians in an open battle on a mountain in the Aedui territory. When Eporedorix reports the events to Caesar, the general realizes that it is not necessary to fight the Aedui. Caesar then took some of his men with him and rode to the army of the Aedui and presented to them those very men they thought the Romans had killed. Noviodunum is an Aeduan town, well situated on the banks of the Loire. He then leaves the five cohorts he thinks are least reliable as camp guard and has the other five cohorts in his legion move upstream at midnight. He then urges the Aedui to forget all disputes and concentrate on the war. Caesar ordered their weapons, horses, and hostages. The Romans and Germans stationed themselves both inside their fortifications to fight those in the city and outside to fight the newly arriving army. He takes Cenabum by being ready for anything. The text indexing is from the printed book, and may or may not match that found in the Loeb's Classical Library. As he suspected, just before midnight, the men of the town begin to slip away. At this time of year the range is covered by deep banks of snow, but Caesar decides to move ahead and by a massive effort, his troops clear a way through six feet of snow and reach the Arverni, who are caught completely by surprise. After many have been kille4 on both sides, the Aedui bring up reinforcements. Some of the tribes that join the rebellion do not even wish to be included in the fracas, but are forced into it by circumstances. CliffsNotes study guides are written by real teachers and professors, so no matter what you're studying, CliffsNotes can ease your homework headaches and help you score high on exams. When Vercingetorix learned what Caesar was doing, he headed back to the Biturgies and then to the non-allied Boiian town of Gergovia in order to attack it. Caesar decided against Cotus and in favor of Convitolitanis. But, while the residents are fulfilling Caesar's demands on them, the vanguard of Vercingetorix' army is sighted. If they wish, he continues, they can take back the title of king they have given him, but he asks them to consider whether or not they have profited from his leadership. He groups his legions together before the Arverni learn of his plans, but Vercingetorix' messengers bring news to their general and he moves his army back to the Bituriges, deciding to attack Gorgobina, a city of the Boii. Then Caesar offers prizes to those who mount the wall first and, that done, gives the signal, and the troops charge the wall. Tribes which Caesar has fought earlier, and many with whom he has been at peace, combine and try their luck against the mighty Roman general. To deal with Vercingetorix' attack against the Allobroges, Caesar sent for cavalry and light-armed infantry help from the Germanic tribes beyond the Rhine. Caesar's very competent legate, Labienus, found himself surrounded by two newly rebelling groups and so needed to move out his troops by stealth. Having advanced into the country of the Nitiobriges, and Gabali, he receives hostages from both nations, and, assembling a numerous force, marches to make a descent on the province in the direction of Narbo. This is particularly ingenious because, once overlapped, the whole wall is reinforced and cannot be battered or pulled down. The Gauls, thirsting for victory, sweep closer to the Roman lines and, in the darkness, fall into the traps Caesar had prepared; others are injured by pikes thrown from the walls. Labienus, because he cannot build a road through the marsh, moves his army back to Metiosedum, where he seizes fifty boats, ties them together to form a bridge and moves his troops so quickly across that Metiosedum is taken without a fight. This chapter or section of the book had a very insightful look into how Caesar handled himself as an emperor, and the many important reforms that he made. Caesar divided his troops in three, too, and fought back, with the Germans obtaining a hilltop formerly in Arverni possession. At first, all was going well for the Romans in the conflict, but then fresh Gallic troops arrived. Caesar, meanwhile, is sure of success; in only a short time the town will be his. Later Vercingetorix would be displayed as a prize in Caesar's triumph of 46 B.C. He tried to ally the Biturgies, but they resisted and sent ambassadors to the Aedui for help against Vercingetorix. The job is enthusiastically completed and two legions cross the river. Vercingetorix, in the city, sees the Romans under full attack, so moves out with all the machinery his men need to cross the Roman trenches. They try to undermine the ramp and set it afire, and attempt to kill the soldiers doing the building. En route, at the Senones' town of Vellaunodunum, Caesar decided to attack so there wouldn't be an enemy on his heels. Finally, Book VII, the longest in Caesar's narrative, describes how, in 52 B.C., Caesar manages to withstand the revolt of fourteen of the Gallic tribes. Especially in the case of Avaricum, He could say the Romans didn't defeat them by valor but by a new technique the Gauls hadn't seen before, and besides, he might have said, he had wanted to torch Avaricum but had only left it standing because of the pleas of the Biturgies. Gill is a Latinist, writer, and teacher of ancient history and Latin. The Remi and Lingones do not attend this meeting for they are still friends of Rome. The Arverni and allies divided into three groups to attack. When the Germans started to kill the Averni, they fled. He then took supreme command. For instance, Caesar made up false facts concerning the characteristics of the Gallic people; apparently, Gallic people were violent and uncivilized, therefore he believed that the only way to domesticate … The leading men of Gaul, having convened councils among themselves in the ... no summary available yet. "The 'Gallic Menace' in Caesar's Propaganda," by Jane F. Gardner Greece & Rome © 1983. He sent other troops against the Helvii whom he defeated while he led his mena and allies against the Allobroges. On the agreed date, the Carnutes, led by Cotuatus and Conconnetodumnus, strike. Instead, they continued to fight and try to plunder the city. The enemy are quickly put to flight and the Germans pursue them all the way to their wall. He even added allies to his roster, including Teutomarus, the son of Ollovicon, the king of the Nitiobriges, who was a friend of Rome on the basis of a formal treaty (amicitia). Vercingetorix, son of Celtillus, a member of the Gallic tribe of Arverni, sent ambassadors out to Gallic tribes not yet allied with him asking them to join him in his endeavor to get rid of the Romans. Naturally they had thought the snow was impenetrable. This particular edition is in a Hardcover format. This could have been done, but another problem would have presented itself: he would have had to station troops on the other side of the hill to protect that part of the entrenchment, thinning both the ranks facing the city, and those facing the enemy force. In the meantime, he instructs the men behind the mantlets to prepare themselves. Now, grouped together on high ground, they wait. On the other hand, he does not want to attempt a blockade until he secures his own grain supply. Vercingetorix decides that it is time to lead his men back inside the fortifications and the day ends. Once more, when the dispatches of Caesar's mighty victories reach Rome, the senate proclaims a public thanksgiving of twenty days. Caesar spared them and marched back towards Gergovia. Then, by forced marches, Caesar gets to Vienne and with the cavalry he had sent there, he continues marching day and night straight through the lands of the Aedui into the Lingones, where two legions are in their winter quarters. The first book covers the year 58 BCE: it opens with the war against the Helvetians, continues with a victorious battleagainst a Germanic army, and culminates in the modest remark that Caesar had concluded two very important wars in a single campaign. By various contrivances, meanwhile, the Gauls in town attempt to undo the siege apparatus assembled by Caesar's troops. Commentarii de Bello Civili (Commentaries on the Civil War), or Bellum Civile, is an account written by Julius Caesar of his war against Gnaeus Pompeius and the Senate. The Gauls then break rank and retreat with heavy losses. Many, of course, do not freely join the rebellion, but are drawn in by political intrigues of various kinds; even the usually faithful Aedui turn against Rome. Caesar, generous to the Aedui and Arverni, distributed Gallic captives so that every soldier throughout the army received one as plunder. Are you sure you want to remove #bookConfirmation# Thus one of the most difficult problems facing Caesar is the ease with which one ambitious or dissatisfied local politician can incite an otherwise peaceful state to rebellion. Perhaps because they lacked the support of the Aedui, the Biturgies gave in to Vercingetorix. Many, of course, do not freely join the rebellion, but are drawn in by political intrigues of various kinds; even the usually faithful Aedui turn against Rome. Wary of sudden attack, though, Caesar explains to his men that the enemy has an advantage of position and, rather than appear rash, he moves the troops back to camp and prepares for the siege of the town. He allows himself to be bribed by the Arverni and shares the bribe with Litaviccus and his brothers, telling them that the Aedui are the only force preventing the victory of Gaul; if the Aedui join the rebels, the Romans will be beaten. 41:48. Of the two, then, Caesar decides that the lack of food is preferable to the disgrace of not being able to protect his allies, so he tells the Aedui to transport the supplies for his army, then informs the Boii that he is on the march. This completed, Caesar builds another set of entrenchments at his rear so that he cannot be surrounded. Women climb atop the wall and with bared breasts plead for mercy, for they have heard that the women and children at Avaricum were killed. He moves his forces inside the city to await the new troops from Gaul. They next find a safe camp and send for the remainder of the army. The Romans put torturous devices on the outside that could injure an army pressing against it. Caesar hears of these moves, but tells their deputies that he will not have his goodwill toward the Aedui swayed by the ignorance of the common people, for he fears a greater rebellion in Gaul and wants to pull back from Gergovia and concentrate his forces again; most of all, he does not want his departure to look like a retreat. Clad in the bloodred cloak he usually wore “as his distinguishing mark of battle,” Caesar led his troops to victories throughout the province, his major triumph being the defeat of the Gallic army led by the chieftain Vercingetorix, in 52 bce. This move prompted Vercingetorix to stop his siege of Gergovia. Meanwhile, other Gallic tribes heard of the revolt of the Aedui. Lucterius is thus stopped and Caesar moves into the land of the Helvii, but is confronted by a mountain range, the Cevennes, separating the Arverni from the Helvii. The Gauls from outside attacked at night by throwing things from a distance and alerting Vercingetorix to their presence. Vercingetorix had used the Roman system of demanding hostages to ensure loyalty and ordered a levy of troops from each of these groups. It should be noted, however, that not all the tribes revolt freely. LibriVox recording of Commentaries on the Gallic War, by Gaius Julius Caesar. There is much confusion, but as always Caesar has two legions in the bivouac ready for such emergencies and he also has the construction relief crews, if need arises. Because of this, there were skirmishes, although Vercingetorix was waiting for Gallic allies to join him before a full-fledged fight against Caesar's army. If a property lacked a good defense it would be burned. The Arverni and the Aedui are not held, for he still hopes eventually to gain their loyalty. Caesar split his army and gave Labienus 4 legions to lead north, towards the Senones and Parisii while he led 6 legions into Arverni country towards Gergovia, which was on the banks of the Allier. Finally, Book VII, the longest in Caesar's narrative, describes how, in 52 B.C., Caesar manages to withstand the revolt of fourteen of the Gallic tribes. He further asks the Aedui and the Segusiavi to supply 10,000 infantry and 800 cavalry. Labienus, meanwhile, leaves the new recruits at Agedincum to guard the equipment and moves his four legions to Lutetia (Paris), but is pitted against Camulogenus, an old but superior soldier. This series of annual war commentaries is referred to by various names but is commonly called De bello Gallico in Latin, or The Gallic Wars in English. While construction of siege works is underway, a cavalry battle disrupts the peace and the Romans begin to falter. Book Summary: The title of this book is The Landmark Julius Caesar: The Complete Works and it was written by Kurt A. Raaflaub (Editor), Robert B. Strassler (Series Editor). Vercingetorix replies that it was they who had insisted on moving the camp, and that they had no need of horses on marshy ground. They pledge safe passage to Marcus Aristius, saying that he may leave the town of Cabillonum, and that the traders who had settled there must also go, but as soon as they start out, the Aedui attack and take all equipment and baggage, then blockade them for a day and a night. By long marches he gets to the Loire and finds a place shallow enough for the troops to wade across, then with the cavalry helping break the force of the river, the entire army gets safely across. The Bellovaci, who intend to fight the Romans themselves, do not make up their quota of 10,000 but because of their regard for Commius they do send 2,000. This books publish date is Dec 05, 2017 and it has a suggested retail price of $50.00. Any plots the Aedui might have had are aborted by the rapidity with which he joins his legions. Moving quickly by night, the Roman general reaches the enemy's camp by morning, but he is unable to take it by surprise. Winners and Losers of Julius Caesar's Gallic War Battles, Roman Empire: Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, Meaning Behind the Phrase to Cross the Rubicon, Valens and the Battle of Adrianople (Hadrianopolis), 60-50 B.C. The Gauls have archers mixed with their cavalry and these, for a time, check the Romans. The Bituriges fearfully ask the Aedui for help and the Aedui, on the advice of the Romans, send infantry and cavalry. The Romans needed some to gather timber and food. 04:11. And, if Caesar moves his legions out too early, there will be difficulty maintaining the grain supply. The capture is so fast that Teutomatus, king of the Nitiobriges, barely escapes. Inside the gates of Noviodunum, the people panic. He takes many troops with him, and when they are about 30 miles from Gergovia he stops them and tells them that many Aeduans have been put to death by the Romans and that, to gain revenge and safety, they must join the Arverni at Gergovia. They are so confused, in fact, that after they find themselves in trouble, they are unable to recognize the friendly Aeduan forces that come to help them. He then orders his troops to call in a thirty-day supply of grain and forage. Caesar sees that his men are fighting with the odds against them and sends a message to Titus Sextius, who has been left to guard the smaller camp. The company manages to rout the enemy unit facing it, but on the other side of the line of battle, the Twelfth Legion faces a particularly brave enemy that refuses to retreat even though many are killed and wounded. The battle at Alesia is perhaps the most involved of all battles described in the Gallic Wars. The battle continues at close quarters, the enemy depending on position and numbers, the Romans on their bravery. After losing three cities, Vercingetorix calls a convention of his followers and tells them their tactics must be changed; they must prevent the Romans from getting forage, a fairly easy task at this time of year when there is virtually no forage in the fields; everything has been cut and placed within the homesteads. There, they overcome the enemy scouts and cross the river safely. Only Caesar can settle the dispute. Accordingly, while the winter was not yet ended, having concentrated the four nearest legions, he … This quality is also observe4 when he gives the German horsemen the mounts his men have been using; he wants the Germans to have the best horses available. The stronghold of Alesia is atop a hill, well protected by natural obstacles, with a plain in front of the town and steep hills on all other sides. Summary. 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